Which statement about medieval cities is true

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which statement about medieval cities is true

Medieval Cities: Their Origins and the Revival of Trade by Henri Pirenne

Henri Pirenne is best known for his provocative argument--known as the Pirenne thesis and familiar to all students of medieval Europe--that it was not the invasion of the Germanic tribes that destroyed the civilization of antiquity, but rather the closing of Mediterranean trade by Arab conquest in the seventh century. The consequent interruption of long distance commerce accelerated the decline of the ancient cities of Europe. Pirenne first formulated his thesis in articles and then expanded on them in Medieval Cities. In the book Pirenne traces the growth of the medieval city from the tenth century to the twelfth, challenging conventional wisdom by attributing the origins of medieval cities to the revival of trade. In addition, Pirenne describes the clear role the middle class played in the development of the modern economic system and modern culture. The Pirenne thesis was fully worked out in the book Mohammed and Charlemagne, which appeared shortly after Pirennes death.


Pirenne was one of the worlds leading historians and arguably the most famous Belgium had produced. During World War I, while teaching at the University of Ghent, he was arrested for supporting Belgiums passive resistance and deported to Germany, where he was held from 1916 to 1918. In 1922, universities in various parts of the United States invited him to deliver lectures: out of these lectures grew Medieval Cities, which appeared in English translation before being published in French in 1927.
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City life in the middle ages - Medieval Madness

Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems.
Henri Pirenne

10 things you (probably) didn’t know about the Middle Ages

Middle Ages , the period in European history from the collapse of Roman civilization in the 5th century ce to the period of the Renaissance variously interpreted as beginning in the 13th, 14th, or 15th century, depending on the region of Europe and other factors. A brief treatment of the Middle Ages follows. For full treatment, see Europe, history of: The Middle Ages. The term and its conventional meaning were introduced by Italian humanists with invidious intent. It would seem unnecessary to observe that the men and women who lived during the thousand years or so preceding the Renaissance were not conscious of living in the Middle Ages.

If there's one thing everyone can seem to agree on about George R. Seven large kingdoms, each with multiple cities and towns, share a populous continent. Urban traders ply the Narrow Sea in galleys, carrying cargoes of wine, grains, and other commodities to the merchants of the Free Cities in the east. Slavers raid the southern continent and force slaves to work as miners, farmers, or household servants. There is a powerful bank based in the Venice-like independent republic of Braavos.

The Middle Ages may have been a time of change and turmoil in Europe, but it is also where we got much of our modern-day folklore. Everything from knights in shining armor, grand castles, royal courts, and even Braveheart have been used to create amazing fairy tales. Stories of Robin Hood, witches, wizards, dragon slayers and more spread like wildfire. These stories were fantasies to escape the troubles of the day, but their cultural influence was as significant as any Medieval event. Since this amazing era of history ended, countless cities in Europe have managed to retain their Medieval elements, architecture, charm, and flair.

In the history of Europe , the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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But how much do you really know about the Middle Ages? Here, John H Arnold, professor of medieval history at Birkbeck, University of London, reveals 10 things about the period that might surprise you. The population of Europe increased hugely across the 12th and 13th centuries, with cities and towns getting much larger. Paris grew about ten-fold and London nearly as much in this period. In the cities, people had all kinds of jobs: merchants, salesmen, carpenters, butchers, weavers, foodsellers, architects, painters, jugglers….

A medieval university is a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher education. The first Western European institutions generally considered universities were established in the Kingdom of Italy then part of the Holy Roman Empire , the Kingdom of England , the Kingdom of France , the Kingdom of Spain , and the Kingdom of Portugal between the 11th and 15th centuries for the study of the Arts and the higher disciplines of Theology , Law , and Medicine. The word universitas originally applied only to the scholastic guilds —that is, the corporation of students and masters—within the studium , and it was always modified, as universitas magistrorum , universitas scholarium , or universitas magistrorum et scholarium. Eventually, however, probably in the late 14th century, the term began to appear by itself to exclusively mean a self-regulating community of teachers and scholars recognized and sanctioned by civil or ecclesiastical authority. From the early modern period onward, this Western -style organizational form gradually spread from the medieval Latin west across the globe, eventually replacing all other higher-learning institutions and becoming the preeminent model for higher education everywhere. The university is generally regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian setting. Evidence of these immediate forerunners of the later university at many places dates back to the 6th century AD.

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